Source code for

from __future__ import absolute_import

import logging
import sys
import threading
import uuid

from pykka.exceptions import ActorDeadError
from pykka.proxy import ActorProxy
from pykka.registry import ActorRegistry

__all__ = [

logger = logging.getLogger('pykka')

[docs]class Actor(object): """ To create an actor: 1. subclass one of the :class:`Actor` implementations, e.g. :class:`GeventActor <pykka.gevent.GeventActor>` or :class:`ThreadingActor`, 2. implement your methods, including :meth:`__init__`, as usual, 3. call :meth:`Actor.start` on your actor class, passing the method any arguments for your constructor. To stop an actor, call :meth:`Actor.stop()` or :meth:`ActorRef.stop()`. For example:: import pykka class MyActor(pykka.ThreadingActor): def __init__(self, my_arg=None): super(MyActor, self).__init__() ... # My optional init code with access to start() arguments def on_start(self): ... # My optional setup code in same context as on_receive() def on_stop(self): ... # My optional cleanup code in same context as on_receive() def on_failure(self, exception_type, exception_value, traceback): ... # My optional cleanup code in same context as on_receive() def on_receive(self, message): ... # My optional message handling code for a plain actor def a_method(self, ...): ... # My regular method to be used through an ActorProxy my_actor_ref = MyActor.start(my_arg=...) my_actor_ref.stop() """
[docs] @classmethod def start(cls, *args, **kwargs): """ Start an actor and register it in the :class:`ActorRegistry <pykka.ActorRegistry>`. Any arguments passed to :meth:`start` will be passed on to the class constructor. Behind the scenes, the following is happening when you call :meth:`start`: 1. The actor is created: 1. :attr:`actor_urn` is initialized with the assigned URN. 2. :attr:`actor_inbox` is initialized with a new actor inbox. 3. :attr:`actor_ref` is initialized with a :class:`pykka.ActorRef` object for safely communicating with the actor. 4. At this point, your :meth:`__init__()` code can run. 2. The actor is registered in :class:`pykka.ActorRegistry`. 3. The actor receive loop is started by the actor's associated thread/greenlet. :returns: a :class:`ActorRef` which can be used to access the actor in a safe manner """ obj = cls(*args, **kwargs) assert obj.actor_ref is not None, ( 'Actor.__init__() have not been called. ' 'Did you forget to call super() in your override?') ActorRegistry.register(obj.actor_ref) logger.debug('Starting %s', obj) obj._start_actor_loop() return obj.actor_ref
@staticmethod def _create_actor_inbox(): """Internal method for implementors of new actor types.""" raise NotImplementedError('Use a subclass of Actor') @staticmethod def _create_future(): """Internal method for implementors of new actor types.""" raise NotImplementedError('Use a subclass of Actor') def _start_actor_loop(self): """Internal method for implementors of new actor types.""" raise NotImplementedError('Use a subclass of Actor') #: The actor URN string is a universally unique identifier for the actor. #: It may be used for looking up a specific actor using #: :meth:`ActorRegistry.get_by_urn #: <pykka.ActorRegistry.get_by_urn>`. actor_urn = None #: The actor's inbox. Use :meth:`ActorRef.tell`, :meth:`ActorRef.ask`, and #: friends to put messages in the inbox. actor_inbox = None #: The actor's :class:`ActorRef` instance. actor_ref = None #: A :class:`threading.Event` representing whether or not the actor should #: continue processing messages. Use :meth:`stop` to change it. actor_stopped = None def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Your are free to override :meth:`__init__`, but you must call your superclass' :meth:`__init__` to ensure that fields :attr:`actor_urn`, :attr:`actor_inbox`, and :attr:`actor_ref` are initialized. You can use :func:`super`:: super(MyActor, self).__init__() Or call you superclass directly:: pykka.ThreadingActor.__init__(self) # or pykka.gevent.GeventActor.__init__(self) :meth:`__init__` is called before the actor is started and registered in :class:`ActorRegistry <pykka.ActorRegistry>`. """ self.actor_urn = uuid.uuid4().urn self.actor_inbox = self._create_actor_inbox() self.actor_stopped = threading.Event() self.actor_ref = ActorRef(self) def __str__(self): return '%(class)s (%(urn)s)' % { 'class': self.__class__.__name__, 'urn': self.actor_urn, }
[docs] def stop(self): """ Stop the actor. It's equivalent to calling :meth:`ActorRef.stop` with ``block=False``. """ self.actor_ref.tell({'command': 'pykka_stop'})
def _stop(self): """ Stops the actor immediately without processing the rest of the inbox. """ ActorRegistry.unregister(self.actor_ref) self.actor_stopped.set() logger.debug('Stopped %s', self) try: self.on_stop() except Exception: self._handle_failure(*sys.exc_info()) def _actor_loop(self): """ The actor's event loop. This is the method that will be executed by the thread or greenlet. """ try: self.on_start() except Exception: self._handle_failure(*sys.exc_info()) while not self.actor_stopped.is_set(): message = self.actor_inbox.get() reply_to = None try: reply_to = message.pop('pykka_reply_to', None) response = self._handle_receive(message) if reply_to: reply_to.set(response) except Exception: if reply_to: logger.debug( 'Exception returned from %s to caller:' % self, exc_info=sys.exc_info()) reply_to.set_exception() else: self._handle_failure(*sys.exc_info()) try: self.on_failure(*sys.exc_info()) except Exception: self._handle_failure(*sys.exc_info()) except BaseException: exception_value = sys.exc_info()[1] logger.debug( '%s in %s. Stopping all actors.' % (repr(exception_value), self)) self._stop() ActorRegistry.stop_all() while not self.actor_inbox.empty(): msg = self.actor_inbox.get() reply_to = msg.pop('pykka_reply_to', None) if reply_to: if msg.get('command') == 'pykka_stop': reply_to.set(None) else: reply_to.set_exception(ActorDeadError( '%s stopped before handling the message' % self.actor_ref))
[docs] def on_start(self): """ Hook for doing any setup that should be done *after* the actor is started, but *before* it starts processing messages. For :class:`ThreadingActor`, this method is executed in the actor's own thread, while :meth:`__init__` is executed in the thread that created the actor. If an exception is raised by this method the stack trace will be logged, and the actor will stop. """ pass
[docs] def on_stop(self): """ Hook for doing any cleanup that should be done *after* the actor has processed the last message, and *before* the actor stops. This hook is *not* called when the actor stops because of an unhandled exception. In that case, the :meth:`on_failure` hook is called instead. For :class:`ThreadingActor` this method is executed in the actor's own thread, immediately before the thread exits. If an exception is raised by this method the stack trace will be logged, and the actor will stop. """ pass
def _handle_failure(self, exception_type, exception_value, traceback): """Logs unexpected failures, unregisters and stops the actor.""" logger.error( 'Unhandled exception in %s:' % self, exc_info=(exception_type, exception_value, traceback)) ActorRegistry.unregister(self.actor_ref) self.actor_stopped.set()
[docs] def on_failure(self, exception_type, exception_value, traceback): """ Hook for doing any cleanup *after* an unhandled exception is raised, and *before* the actor stops. For :class:`ThreadingActor` this method is executed in the actor's own thread, immediately before the thread exits. The method's arguments are the relevant information from :func:`sys.exc_info`. If an exception is raised by this method the stack trace will be logged, and the actor will stop. """ pass
def _handle_receive(self, message): """Handles messages sent to the actor.""" if message.get('command') == 'pykka_stop': return self._stop() if message.get('command') == 'pykka_call': callee = self._get_attribute_from_path(message['attr_path']) return callee(*message['args'], **message['kwargs']) if message.get('command') == 'pykka_getattr': attr = self._get_attribute_from_path(message['attr_path']) return attr if message.get('command') == 'pykka_setattr': parent_attr = self._get_attribute_from_path( message['attr_path'][:-1]) attr_name = message['attr_path'][-1] return setattr(parent_attr, attr_name, message['value']) return self.on_receive(message)
[docs] def on_receive(self, message): """ May be implemented for the actor to handle regular non-proxy messages. Messages where the value of the "command" key matches "pykka_*" are reserved for internal use in Pykka. :param message: the message to handle :type message: picklable dict :returns: anything that should be sent as a reply to the sender """ logger.warning('Unexpected message received by %s: %s', self, message)
def _get_attribute_from_path(self, attr_path): """ Traverses the path and returns the attribute at the end of the path. """ attr = self for attr_name in attr_path: attr = getattr(attr, attr_name) return attr
[docs]class ActorRef(object): """ Reference to a running actor which may safely be passed around. :class:`ActorRef` instances are returned by :meth:`Actor.start` and the lookup methods in :class:`ActorRegistry <pykka.ActorRegistry>`. You should never need to create :class:`ActorRef` instances yourself. :param actor: the actor to wrap :type actor: :class:`Actor` """ #: The class of the referenced actor. actor_class = None #: See :attr:`Actor.actor_urn`. actor_urn = None #: See :attr:`Actor.actor_inbox`. actor_inbox = None #: See :attr:`Actor.actor_stopped`. actor_stopped = None def __init__(self, actor): self._actor = actor self.actor_class = actor.__class__ self.actor_urn = actor.actor_urn self.actor_inbox = actor.actor_inbox self.actor_stopped = actor.actor_stopped def __repr__(self): return '<ActorRef for %s>' % str(self) def __str__(self): return '%(class)s (%(urn)s)' % { 'urn': self.actor_urn, 'class': self.actor_class.__name__, }
[docs] def is_alive(self): """ Check if actor is alive. This is based on the actor's stopped flag. The actor is not guaranteed to be alive and responding even though :meth:`is_alive` returns :class:`True`. :return: Returns :class:`True` if actor is alive, :class:`False` otherwise. """ return not self.actor_stopped.is_set()
[docs] def tell(self, message): """ Send message to actor without waiting for any response. Will generally not block, but if the underlying queue is full it will block until a free slot is available. :param message: message to send :type message: picklable dict :raise: :exc:`pykka.ActorDeadError` if actor is not available :return: nothing """ if not self.is_alive(): raise ActorDeadError('%s not found' % self) self.actor_inbox.put(message)
[docs] def ask(self, message, block=True, timeout=None): """ Send message to actor and wait for the reply. The message must be a picklable dict. If ``block`` is :class:`False`, it will immediately return a :class:`Future <pykka.Future>` instead of blocking. If ``block`` is :class:`True`, and ``timeout`` is :class:`None`, as default, the method will block until it gets a reply, potentially forever. If ``timeout`` is an integer or float, the method will wait for a reply for ``timeout`` seconds, and then raise :exc:`pykka.Timeout`. :param message: message to send :type message: picklable dict :param block: whether to block while waiting for a reply :type block: boolean :param timeout: seconds to wait before timeout if blocking :type timeout: float or :class:`None` :raise: :exc:`pykka.Timeout` if timeout is reached if blocking :raise: any exception returned by the receiving actor if blocking :return: :class:`pykka.Future`, or response if blocking """ future = self.actor_class._create_future() message['pykka_reply_to'] = future try: self.tell(message) except ActorDeadError: future.set_exception() if block: return future.get(timeout=timeout) else: return future
[docs] def stop(self, block=True, timeout=None): """ Send a message to the actor, asking it to stop. Returns :class:`True` if actor is stopped or was being stopped at the time of the call. :class:`False` if actor was already dead. If ``block`` is :class:`False`, it returns a future wrapping the result. Messages sent to the actor before the actor is asked to stop will be processed normally before it stops. Messages sent to the actor after the actor is asked to stop will be replied to with :exc:`pykka.ActorDeadError` after it stops. The actor may not be restarted. ``block`` and ``timeout`` works as for :meth:`ask`. :return: :class:`pykka.Future`, or a boolean result if blocking """ ask_future = self.ask({'command': 'pykka_stop'}, block=False) def _stop_result_converter(timeout): try: ask_future.get(timeout=timeout) return True except ActorDeadError: return False converted_future = ask_future.__class__() converted_future.set_get_hook(_stop_result_converter) if block: return converted_future.get(timeout=timeout) else: return converted_future
[docs] def proxy(self): """ Wraps the :class:`ActorRef` in an :class:`ActorProxy <pykka.ActorProxy>`. Using this method like this:: proxy = AnActor.start().proxy() is analogous to:: proxy = ActorProxy(AnActor.start()) :raise: :exc:`pykka.ActorDeadError` if actor is not available :return: :class:`pykka.ActorProxy` """ return ActorProxy(self)